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Natural Fibers
Organic Inorganic
Plant Animal Rock Metal
Seed Bast Leaf Fruit Hair Wool Silk
Cotton (CO) Flax (LI) Abaca (AB) Coconut (CC) Camel (WK) Wool (WO) Silk (SE) Asbestos (AS) Metal (MTF)
Kapok () Hemp (HA)     Alpaca (WP)   Tussah (ST)    
Akund() Jute (JU)     Lama (WL)        
  Bamboo (BAM)     Angora Mohair (WM)        
        Cashmere (WS)        
        Horse Hair (HS)        
        Angora Rabbit (WA)        


Synthetic Fibers
Organic Inorganic
Natural Synthetic
Cellulose Origin Protein Origin
From Plant From Animals
Viscose (CV) Soybean (SPF) Casein () Acylic (PAN) Glass (GF)
Modal (MD) Alginate (ALG) Poly lactic Acid (PLA) Poly ethylene (PE) Carbon (CF)
Lyocell (CLY) Corn ()   Poly propylene (PP) Ceramic (GEF)
  Peanut ()   Poly ester (PET)  
      Modacrylic (MAC)  
      Elasthane (EL)  
      Poly tetra fluoroethylene (PTFE)  
      Poly amide 6 (PA 6)  
      Poly amide 6.6 (PA 6.6)  
      Aramide (AR)  



Textile Fibers


General
A fibre is characterised by its high ratio of length to thickness, and by its strength and flexibility.

Fibres may be of natural origin, or artificially made from natural or synthetic polymers.

They are available in a variety of forms. Staple fibres are short, with length-to-thickness ratios around 1000, whereas this ratio for continuous filaments is at least several millions.

The form and properties of a natural fibre such as cotton are fixed, but for artificially made fibres a wide choice of properties is available by design.

The many variations include staple fibres of any length, single continuous filaments (monofilaments), or yarns constituted of many filaments (multi-filaments). The fibres or filaments may be lustrous, dull or semi-dull, coarse, fine or ultra-fine, circular or of any other cross-section, straight or crimped, regular or chemically modified, or solid or hollow.

Applications
Base material for;

Yarn Production
Yarn Production to build textile materials by weaving and kniiting
Nonwoven web production
Composites production
Paper production
Felt production
Many other industrial area

Functions

International Generic Names
To simplify correspondance and communication, abbreviations are used for fibres.
DIN 60001 or ISO 2076

Fineness
The ratio of a fiber's mass to its length.

Length
All natural fibers except silk are stable fibers.
Man-made fibers can be manufactured as continuous filament or else cut or torn to a defined length.
The stable is the precentage distrubution of the fibre lengths in the fiber row material.
The stable fiber length is a quality criteria that serves to regulate spinning mill machines.
The shorter the fibre, the more difficult it is the produce fine yarns.

Tensile Strength
It refers to the tensile stress the moment it breaks as the force is applied in the direction of the fiber axis. The unit is cN/tex. Also the wet tensile strength should be calculated.

Elasticity
The elasticity or tensile elongation describes the re-contraction of the fiber upon relaxation of the fiber, given as a percentage of its original length.

Biological Resistance
Called also biodegradability, refers to the ability of fibers to resist microorganisms and insects.
Natural fibers degrade more than man-made fibers.

Moisture
Moisture absorption is the amount of water that is taken up by fibers in a standart climate.
Absorbancy describes how quickly the water is taken up.

Softening
Heating the fibers makes them deformable. This property is utilised in texturing, heat-setting, pleating and moulding.

Melting
The liquefaction of fibers.

Decomposition
At high temperatures, fiber molecules decompose. This leads to discolorations as well as losses in stetch and tensile strength.

Flammability
The limited oxygen index (LOI) is the burning behaviour of polymers. The value represents the lowest oxygen concentration in a nitrogen mixture at which the textile substance does not burn.

Chemical Resistance
Resistance of the fibers to acid or alkaline or solvent chemicals.

Light Stability
Light and its UV component cause ageing also colour changes. The molecules break down. The result are reduced strength, lower elasticity, britleness and decomposition of the fibers.

Electrostatic Charging
Most textile fibers are non-conductors. Their electrical conductivity is poor, which is why textiles becomes charged by static electricity or by rubbing. Low relative humidity reinforces this effect.


Specifications

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